Forty-two ex-prematures having had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period were compared with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at ages 6 to 10 years. The overall incidence of ophthalmologic problems was 55% in the ROP and 36% in the non-ROP group. Strabismus, amblyopia, and refraction anomalies occurred more frequently in the ROP group. In this group, a significantly greater number of children had decreased vision in one or both eyes compared to the non-ROP group. Although the incidence of ophthalmologic problems in the ROP group was considerably higher, the incidence in the non-ROP group still turned out unexpectedly high. this implicates that non-ROP very low birth weight neonates should also be considered to be at a greatly increased risk for later visual problems. Regular ocular examinations, mandatory for the ROP group, thus should be included in follow-up programs of non-ROP very low birthweight neonates as well.