Assessment of the relationships among coagulopathy, hyperfibrinolysis, plasma lactate, and protein C in dogs with spontaneous hemoperitoneum

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2016 Jan-Feb;26(1):41-51. doi: 10.1111/vec.12346. Epub 2015 Jul 28.


Objective: To relate coagulation and fibrinolysis derangements to shock severity as reflected by plasma lactate concentrations in dogs with spontaneous hemoperitoneum (SHP) and determine the impact on transfusions.

Design: Prospective, observational, case-control study.

Setting: Three veterinary teaching hospitals.

Animals: Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with SHP and 28 breed- and age-matched control dogs.

Interventions: None.

Measurements and main results: Blood samples for platelet counts, coagulation, and anticoagulant assays (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and protein C, thromboelastography [TEG]), fibrinolysis testing (d-dimer and TEG lysis parameters with and without the addition of 50 U/mL of tissue plasminogen activator [TEG LY30 measured with the addition of 50 U/mL of tPA to the blood sample, LY3050 and TEG LY60 measured with the addition of 50 U/mL of tPA to the blood sample, LY6050 ; LY30 and LY60]), and plasma lactate as an indicator of severity of shock were collected from SHP dogs at the time of diagnosis. SHP dogs were hypocoagulable (prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased TEG maximum amplitude) and hyperfibrinolytic (increased LY3050 and TEG LY6050 ) compared to controls. The severity of hypocoagulability was related to protein C activity, while the severity of hyperfibrinolysis was related to plasma lactate concentration. Among the 18 dogs discharged from the hospital, LY3050 was significantly associated with the dose of fresh frozen plasma administered, but none of the parameters were associated with the dose of red blood cells administered.

Conclusions: Dogs with SHP have evidence of hypocoagulability, protein C deficiency, and hyperfibrinolysis. Parameters of hyperfibrinolysis were related to plasma lactate concentrations and volume of plasma transfused during hospitalization. These derangements resemble those found in people with acute coagulopathy of trauma and shock, and activation of protein C may be a common feature to both syndromes.

Keywords: clinical epidemiology; clinical pathology; clinical trials; coagulation; coagulopathies; critical care; fluid therapy; hemostasis; shock; transfusion medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / veterinary*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Dog Diseases / blood
  • Dog Diseases / metabolism
  • Dog Diseases / pathology*
  • Dogs
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • Fibrinogen
  • Hemoperitoneum / blood
  • Hemoperitoneum / metabolism
  • Hemoperitoneum / veterinary*
  • Lactic Acid / blood*
  • Partial Thromboplastin Time
  • Prospective Studies
  • Protein C / metabolism*
  • Prothrombin Time / veterinary
  • Shock / veterinary
  • Thrombelastography / veterinary


  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • Protein C
  • fibrin fragment D
  • Lactic Acid
  • Fibrinogen