Dengue virus (DENV) infects approximately 390 million persons every year in more than 100 countries. Reports of neurological complications are more frequently. The objective of this narrative review is to bring up the advances in the dengue neuropathogenesis. DENV can access the nervous system through blood-brain barrier disturbance mediated by cytokine. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier seems to be also involved, considering the presence of the virus in the CSF of patients with neurological manifestations. As for neurotropism, several studies showed the presence of RNA and viral antigens in brain tissue and CSF in humans. In murine model, different virus mutations were associated to neurovirulence. Despite the advances in the dengue neuropathogenesis, it is still necessary to determine a more appropriate animal model and increase the number of cases of autopsy. The detection of neurovirulence markers may contribute to establish a prognosis, the disease control and vaccine development.