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Meta-Analysis
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Phytoestrogens and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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Meta-Analysis

Phytoestrogens and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Jinjing He et al. World J Surg Oncol.

Abstract

Background: Epidemiologic studies have reported various results relating phytoestrogens to prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis on the extent of the possible association between phytoestrogens (including consumption and serum concentration) and the risk of PCa.

Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved via both computer searches and review of references. The summary relative risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated with random effects models.

Results: A total of 11 studies (2 cohort and 9 case-control studies) on phytoestrogen intake and 8 studies on serum concentration were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) showed a significant influence of the highest phytoestrogens consumption (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.91) and serum concentration (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99) on the risk of PCa. In stratified analysis, high genistein and daidzein intake and increased serum concentration of enterolactone were associated with a significant reduced risk of PCa. However, no significant associations were observed for isoflavone intake, lignans intake, or serum concentrations of genistein, daidzein, or equol.

Conclusions: The overall current literature suggests that phytoestrogen intake is associated with a decreased risk of PCa, especially genistein and daidzein intake. Increased serum concentration of enterolactone was also associated with a significant reduced risk of PCa. Further efforts should be made to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Study selection process
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
A forest plot showing pooled data for the association between phytoestrogen intake and prostate cancer risk in a variety of geographical region
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
A forest plot showing the pooled risk estimates of prostate cancer for different types of phytoestrogen intake
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
A forest plot depicting the pooled risk estimates on the association between serum phytoestrogen concentration and prostate cancer risk

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