Metric Development for an Arthroscopic Bankart Procedure: Assessment of Face and Content Validity

Arthroscopy. 2015 Aug;31(8):1430-40. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.093.


Purpose: To establish the metrics (operational definitions) necessary to characterize a reference arthroscopic Bankart procedure, and to seek consensus from experienced shoulder arthroscopists on the appropriateness of the steps, as well as errors identified.

Methods: Three experienced arthroscopic shoulder surgeons and an experimental psychologist (comprising the Metrics Group) deconstructed an arthroscopic Bankart procedure. Fourteen full-length videos were analyzed to identify the essential steps and potential errors. Sentinel (i.e., more serious) errors were defined as either (1) potentially jeopardizing the procedure outcome or (2) creating iatrogenic damage to the shoulder. The metrics were stress tested for clarity and the ability to be scored in binary fashion during a video review as either occurring or not occurring. The metrics were subjected to analysis by a panel of 27 experienced arthroscopic shoulder surgeons to obtain face and content validity using a modified Delphi Panel methodology (consensus opinion of experienced surgeons rendered by cyclical deliberations).

Results: Forty-five steps and 13 phases characterizing an arthroscopic Bankart procedure were identified. Seventy-seven procedural errors were specified, with 20 designated as sentinel errors. The modified Delphi Panel deliberation created the following changes: 2 metrics were deleted, 1 was added, and 5 were modified. Consensus on the resulting Bankart metrics was obtained and face and content validity verified.

Conclusions: This study confirms that a core group of experienced arthroscopic surgeons is able to perform task deconstruction of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and create unambiguous step and error definitions (metrics) that accurately characterize the essential components of the procedure. Analysis and revision by a larger panel of experienced arthroscopists were able to validate the Bankart metrics.

Clinical relevance: The ability to perform task deconstruction and validate the resulting metrics will play a key role in improving surgical skills training and assessing trainee progression toward proficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Arthroplasty / methods
  • Arthroplasty / standards*
  • Arthroscopy / methods
  • Arthroscopy / standards*
  • Delphi Technique
  • Humans
  • Orthopedics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Shoulder Joint / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome