Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with matched unrelated donors (MUD), offers potentially curative therapy for patients with non-malignant genetic diseases. In this pilot study conducted from 2006 to 2014, we report the outcomes of 15 patients with non-malignant genetic diseases who received a myeloablative regimen with a reduced cyclophosphamide dose, adjunctive serotherapy and MUD HSCT [intravenous alemtuzumab (52 mg/m(2) ), busulfan (16 mg/kg), fludarabine (140mg/m(2) ), and cyclophosphamide (105 mg/kg)]. Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus/cyclosporine and methylprednisolone. Median (range) time to neutrophil engraftment (>500 cells/µL) and platelet engraftment (>20,000/mm(3) ) were 15 (12-28) and 25 (17-30) days, respectively. At a median follow-up of 2 (0.2-5.4) years, the overall survival (OS) was 93.3% (95% CI: 0.61-0.99) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 73.3% (95% CI: 0.44-0.89). Among this small sample, earlier alemtuzumab clearance was significantly associated with graft rejection (P = 0.047), earlier PHA response (P = 0.009) and a trend toward earlier recovery of recent thymic emigrants (RTE) (P = 0.06). This regimen was associated with durable donor engraftment and relatively low rates of regimen related toxicity (RRT); future alemtuzumab pharmacokinetic studies may improve outcomes, by allowing targeted alemtuzumab clearance to reduce graft rejection and promote more rapid immune reconstitution.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.