Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Primate, the Pied Tamarin (Saguinus bicolor): Implications for Conservation

J Hered. 2015;106 Suppl 1:512-21. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esv048.


We analyzed DNA at 9 microsatellite loci from hair samples of 73 pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) located in 3 urban forest fragments and a biological reserve in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The forest fragments had become isolated from the continuous forest 6-15 years prior to the time of sampling. Tests for reduction in population size showed that all groups from the urban forest fragments had undergone genetic bottlenecks. Pied tamarins in this region historically formed one biological population, and the fragments were connected by high levels of gene flow. These results indicate the need to implement a conservation plan that allows for connectivity between the urban fragments, as well as protection from further constriction. Such connectivity could be achieved via the creation and protection of corridors. In addition to the current population trends explained by anthropogenic actions, the species also shows a trend of long-term demographic decline that has resulted in approximately an order of magnitude decrease and began 13 thousand years ago.

Keywords: conservation genetics; forest fragmentation; pied tamarin; sauim-de-coleira; urban forest fragments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brazil
  • Cities
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Endangered Species
  • Forests*
  • Gene Flow
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Genotype
  • Leontopithecus
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Models, Genetic
  • Population Density
  • Saguinus / genetics*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA