Background: Parawixia bistriata is a semi-colonial spider found mainly in southeastern of Brazil. Parawixin 10 (Pwx 10) a compound isolated from this spider venom has been demonstrated to act as neuroprotective in models of injury regulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission through glutamate transporters.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Pwx 10 in a rat model of excitotoxic brain injury by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injection.
Material and methods: Male Wistar rats have been used, submitted to stereotaxic surgery for saline or NMDA microinjection into dorsal hippocampus. Two groups of animals were treated with Pwx 10. These treated groups received a daily injection of the Pwx 10 (2.5 mg/μL) in the right lateral ventricle into rats pretreated with NMDA, always at the same time, each one starting the treatment 1 h or 24 h. Nissl staining was performed for evaluating the extension and efficacy of the NMDA injury and the neuroprotective effect of Pwx 10.
Results: The treatment with Pwx 10 showed neuroprotective effect, being most pronounced when the compound was administrated from 1 h after NMDA in all hippocampal subfields analyzed (CA1, CA3 and hilus).
Conclusion: These results indicated that Pwx 10 may be a good template to develop therapeutic drugs for treating neurodegenerative diseases, reinforcing the importance of continuing studies on its effects in the central nervous system.
Keywords: Excitotoxicity; N-methyl-D aspartate; glutamate; parawixia bistriata; spider venom.