Certain groups of neonates are at high risk of developing long-term neurodevelopmental impairment and might be considered candidates for neuroprotective interventions. This article explores some of these high-risk groups, relevant mechanisms of brain injury, and specific mechanisms of cellular injury and death. The potential of erythropoietin (Epo) to act as a neuroprotective agent for neonatal brain injury is discussed. Clinical trials of Epo neuroprotection in preterm and term infants are updated.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Autophagy; Brain injury; Erythropoietin; Extreme prematurity; Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; Necrosis.
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