Increasing evidence suggests that treatment with online post-dilution haemodiafiltration (HDF) improves clinical outcome in patients with end-stage kidney disease, if compared with haemodialysis (HD). Although the primary analyses of three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed inconclusive results, post hoc analyses of these and previous observational studies comparing online post-dilution HDF with HD showed that the risk of overall and cardiovascular mortality is lowest in patients who are treated with high-volume HDF. As such, the magnitude of the convection volume seems crucial and can be considered as the 'dose' of HDF. In this narrative review, the relevance of high convection volume in online post-dilution HDF is discussed. In addition, we briefly touch upon some safety and cost issues.
Keywords: convection volume; costs; hemodiafiltration; mortality; safety.