Is it possible to distinguish testicular torsion from other causes of acute scrotum in patients who underwent scrotal exploration? A multi-center clinical trial

Cent European J Urol. 2015;68(2):252-6. doi: 10.5173/ceju.2015.542. Epub 2015 Jun 18.


Introduction: To assess the clinical presentation of patients who underwent surgical exploration for acute scrotum and to investigate the potentially related factors for differential dignosis.

Material and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 97 patients who underwent surgical exploration for acute scrotum between May 2007 and July 2013. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: Group1 included patients with testicular torsion (TT) and Group 2 contained patients with acute scrotal pathologies other than TT, including torsion of the testicular appendage, epididymo-orchitis, trauma and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. The physical examination findings, colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and laboratory findings for the groups were compared.

Results: In total, 97 scrotal explorations were carried out for acute scrotum. Group 1 included 72 patients (74.2%) and Group 2 included 25 patients (25.8%). Group 2 was comprised of patients with torsion of the testicular appendage (n = 13), epididymo-orchitis (n = 8), testicular trauma (n = 2) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (n = 2). In Group 1, 32 cases (44.4%) presented to a hospital less than 6 hours after onset of pain. More than half (64%) of Group 2's cases presented more than 24 hours after pain onset. Fever and pyuria appeared more frequently in Group 2 than in Group 1 and the results reached statistical significance (p = 0.001 and p = 0.044, respectively). Group 1 had more testicular tenderness than Group 2 (p <0.001). Our testicular salvage rate was 59.7%, and 40.3% of patients underwent orchiectomy.

Conclusions: CDUS predicted the diagnosis of TT (sensitivity 98.6%). Furthermore, clinical findings may also play a substantial role in the differential diagnosis of acute scrotum.

Keywords: acute scrotum; epididymoorchitis; testicular torsion; torsion of testicular appendages.