Effects of the CYP2D6*10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its metabolites

Arch Pharm Res. 2015 Nov;38(11):2083-91. doi: 10.1007/s12272-015-0646-z. Epub 2015 Aug 9.


To investigate the effect of the variant CYP2D6*10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its metabolites, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine (4-HAT) and N-desmethylatomoxetine (NAT), in healthy subjects, a single oral dose of atomoxetine was administered to 62 subjects with a CYP2D6*wt/*wt (*wt = *1 or *2, n = 22), CYP2D6*wt/*10 (n = 22) or CYP2D6*10/*10 (n = 18) genotype. Plasma samples were then collected for 24 h after atomoxetine administration. The concentrations of atomoxetine and its metabolites were assayed using LC-MS/MS. For atomoxetine, the Cmax, AUC0-∞, t1/2 and CL/F showed genotype-dependent differences. The CYP2D6*10/*10 and CYP2D6*wt/*10 groups showed 1.74- and 1.15-fold higher Cmax, 3.40- and 1.33-fold higher AUC0-∞, and 69.7 and 24.6 % lower CL/F, compared to those of the CYP2D6*wt/*wt group, respectively. The Cmax and t1/2 for 4-HAT were lower and longer in the CYP2D6*10/*10 group than those in the CYP2D6*wt/*wt group, but the AUC0-∞ was not different between these groups. The Cmax, AUC0-∞ and t1/2 for NAT were profoundly greater in the CYP2D6*10/*10 group than they were in the CYP2D6*wt/*wt group. The concentration of active moieties of atomoxetine (atomoxetine + 4-HAT) in the CYP2D6*10/*10 group was 3.32-fold higher than that in the CYP2D6*wt/*wt group. The mean exposure to active moieties of atomoxetine was markedly higher in subjects with the CYP2D6*10/*10 genotype compared to that in those with the CYP2D6*wt/*wt genotype. The higher systemic exposure of the active atomoxetine moieties in CYP2D6*10/*10 individuals may increase the risk of concentration-related adverse events of atomoxetine, although this has not yet been clinically confirmed.

Keywords: 4-hydroxyatomoxetine; Atomoxetine; CYP2D6*10; Pharmacokinetics.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Adult
  • Alleles
  • Area Under Curve
  • Atomoxetine Hydrochloride / pharmacokinetics*
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phenols / pharmacokinetics*
  • Phenyl Ethers / pharmacokinetics*
  • Propylamines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Young Adult


  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
  • Phenols
  • Phenyl Ethers
  • Propylamines
  • N-desmethylatomoxetine
  • Atomoxetine Hydrochloride
  • 4-hydroxyatomoxetine
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6