Higher plain water intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk: a cross-sectional study in humans

Nutr Res. 2015 Oct;35(10):865-872. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.06.015. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plain water intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. It was hypothesized that higher plain water intake would be associated with a lower T2D risk score. One hundred thirty-eight adults from Southwest and Southeast England answered a cross-sectional online survey assessing T2D risk (using the Diabetes UK risk assessment); physical activity (using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire); and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beverages (using an adapted version of the Cambridge European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire). There was a trend for differences in mean plain water intake between those stratified as having low, increased, moderate, or high risk of T2D; but these did not achieve significance (P = .084). However, plain water intake was significantly negatively correlated with T2D risk score (τ = -0°180, P = .005); and for every 240-mL cup of water consumed per day, T2D risk score was reduced by 0.72 point (range, 0-47) (B = -0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.06 to -0.01, P = .014). The current study has provided preliminary results that are supported by theory; mechanisms need to be explored further to determine the true effect of plain water intake on disease risk. As increasing plain water intake is a simple and cost-effective dietary modification, its impact on T2D risk is important to investigate further in a randomized controlled trial. Overall, this study found that plain water intake had a significant negative correlation with T2D risk score; and regression analysis suggested that water may have a role in reducing T2D risk.

Keywords: Cross-sectional studies; Diabetes mellitus; Humans; Lifestyle; Risk assessment; Type 2; Water.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Beverages
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Diet
  • Diet Records
  • Drinking / physiology*
  • England
  • Female
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vegetables
  • Waist Circumference