Dietary intake of calcium and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) 2001-2010 data

Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 28;114(6):924-35. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002482. Epub 2015 Aug 11.


Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Experimental studies suggest that a higher intra-cellular ratio of Ca:Mg, which may be induced by a diet high in Ca and low in Mg, may lead to hypertension and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have examined the effects of the combined intake of Mg and Ca on MetSyn. Thus, we evaluated the association between dietary intakes of Ca and Mg (using 24-h recalls), independently and in combination, and MetSyn in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001-2010 data, which included 9148 adults (4549 men and 4599 women), with complete information on relevant nutrient, demographic, anthropometric and biomarker variables. We found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (<197 mg/d) quartile of Mg and MetSyn (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.57, 0.86). Women who met the RDA for both Mg (310-320 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d) had the greatest reduced odds of MetSyn (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.45, 0.76). In men, meeting the RDA for Mg (400-420 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d), individually or in combination, was not associated with MetSyn; however, men with intakes in the highest quartile for Mg (≥ 386 mg/d) and Ca (≥ 1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59, 0.93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be protected against MetSyn.

Keywords: BP blood pressure; Calcium; DBP diastolic BP; Dietary intake; EAR estimated average requirements; MEC mobile examination centre; Magnesium; MetSyn metabolic syndrome; Metabolic syndrome; NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Study; SBP systolic BP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Calcium / deficiency
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Calcium, Dietary / therapeutic use*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet* / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage
  • Magnesium / therapeutic use*
  • Magnesium Deficiency / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Patient Compliance
  • Prevalence
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium