Biosignatures of Exposure/Transmission and Immunity

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Sep;93(3 Suppl):16-27. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0037. Epub 2015 Aug 10.


A blood test that captures cumulative exposure over time and assesses levels of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) would provide a critical tool to monitor the impact of interventions to reduce malaria transmission and broaden our understanding of how NAI develops around the world as a function of age and exposure. This article describes a collaborative effort in multiple International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) to develop such tests using malaria-specific antibody responses as biosignatures of transmission and immunity. The focus is on the use of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax protein microarrays to identify a panel of the most informative antibody responses in diverse malaria-endemic settings representing an unparalleled spectrum of malaria transmission and malaria species mixes before and after interventions to reduce malaria transmission.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / immunology
  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / immunology
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • Antigens, Protozoan / immunology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Malaria / diagnosis
  • Malaria / immunology
  • Malaria / transmission*
  • Plasmodium falciparum / immunology
  • Plasmodium vivax / immunology
  • Protein Array Analysis


  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Antigens, Protozoan
  • Biomarkers