Background: Preterm children have been reported to be at higher risk to develop attachment insecurity.
Aims: The present study aimed to investigate potential differences in attachment security between newborns who were sent to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and those who were not, in a population of full-term children.
Study design: Participants (162 mother-child dyads) were part of a longitudinal study (MAVAN). Twenty-three of these children received special care at birth (NICU group). Attachment security was assessed at 36 months with the Strange Situation Procedure. Socio-economic status (SES), birth weight, maternal mood, maternal sensitivity, mental/psychomotor developmental indexes, Apgar scores, presence of complications during delivery and infant general health were assessed.
Results: In the No-NICU group, 55.4% of children were securely attached, 24.5% were insecure and 20.1% were disorganized. However, in the NICU group, 43.5% of children were securely attached, 8.7% were insecure and 47.8% were disorganized (χ(2)=9.0; p=.01). The only differences between the 2 groups were a lower Apgar, more respiratory infections and more visits to walk-in clinic/hospital (p's<.05) and a trend for lower SES and more ear infections in the NICU group. Logistic regressions revealed an odds ratio of 6.1 (p=.003) of developing a disorganized attachment after a stay in NICU, when controlling for these confounding variables.
Conclusion: Newborns who were admitted to NICU have an odds ratio of about 6 to develop a disorganized attachment at 36 months. These preliminary results support the importance of supportive parental proximity and contact with the infant in the NICU and possible after-care.
Keywords: Attachment; Child development; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; Neonate.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.