Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study

Redox Biol. 2015 Dec;6:198-205. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2015.07.012. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Abstract

Glutathione (GSH) is critical to fight against oxidative stress. Its very low bioavailability limits the interest of a supplementation. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH. The study was a three-week randomized crossover trial. 20 Volunteers with metabolic syndrome were enrolled. GSH levels and several oxidative stress markers were determined at different times during each 21-days period. Compared to oral GSH group, an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in plasma and a higher GSH/GSSG ratio (p=0.003) was observed in sublingual GSH group. After 3 weeks of administration, there was a significant increase of vitamin E level in plasma only in sublingual GSH group (0.83 µmol/g; p=0.04). Our results demonstrate the superiority of a new sublingual form of GSH over the oral GSH form and NAC in terms of GSH supplementation.

Keywords: Dietary supplement; Glutathione; Metabolic syndrome; N-acetyl cysteine; Nutraceuticals; Oral bioavailability; Oxidative stress; Sublingual.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcysteine / blood
  • Acetylcysteine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Administration, Oral
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biological Availability
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Female
  • Glutathione / blood
  • Glutathione / pharmacokinetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diet therapy*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Tablets
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Vitamin E / blood

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Tablets
  • Triglycerides
  • Vitamin E
  • Glutathione
  • Acetylcysteine