The scope and sequence of growth factor delivery for vascularized bone tissue regeneration

J Control Release. 2015 Dec 10;219:129-140. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.08.004. Epub 2015 Aug 8.


Bone regeneration is a complex process, that in vivo, requires the highly coordinated presentation of biochemical cues to promote the various stages of angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Taking inspiration from the natural healing process, a wide variety of growth factors are currently being released within next generation tissue engineered scaffolds (in a variety of ways) in order to heal non-union fractures and bone defects. This review will focus on the delivery of multiple growth factors to the bone regeneration niche, specifically 1) dual growth factor delivery signaling and crosstalk, 2) the importance of growth factor timing and temporal separation, and 3) the engineering of delivery systems that allow for temporal control over presentation of soluble growth factors. Alternative methods for growth factor presentation, including the use of gene therapy and platelet-rich plasma scaffolds, are also discussed.

Keywords: Biomaterials; Bone regeneration; Controlled release; Growth factors; Tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / administration & dosage
  • Bone Regeneration*
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Tissue Engineering


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins