The double-edged sword nature by which IL-2 regulates autoimmunity and the unpredictable outcomes of anti-TNF therapy in autoimmunity highlight the importance for understanding how TNF regulates IL-2. Transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) preferentially binds TNFR2, whereas soluble TNF (sTNF) binds TNFR1. We previously showed reduced IL-2 production in TNFR1(-/-) TNFR2(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we generated TNFR1(-/-), TNFR2(-/-), or TNFR1(-/-) TNFR2(-/-) 5C.C7 TCR Il2-GFP mice and report that CD4(+) T cell-intrinsic tmTNF/TNFR2 stimulates Il2 promoter activity and Il2 mRNA stability. We further used tmTNF Foxp3 gfp reporter mice and pharmacological TNF blockade in wild-type mice to report a tmTNF/TNFR2 interaction for Il2 expression. IL-17 is critical for host defense, but its overabundance promotes autoimmunity. IL-2 represses Th17 differentiation, but the role for TNFR2 in this process is not well understood. We report elevated expression of TNFR2 under Th17-polarization conditions. Genetic loss-of-function experimental models, as well as selective TNF blockade by etanercept and XPro1595 in wild-type mice, demonstrate that impaired tmTNF/TNFR2, but not sTNF/TNFR1, promotes Th17 differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Under Th17-polarizing conditions, elevated IL-17 production by TNFR2-knockout CD4(+) T cells was associated with increased STAT3 activity and decreased STAT5 activity. Increased IL-17 production in TNFR2-knockout T cells was prevented by adding exogenous IL-2. We conclude that CD4(+) T cell-intrinsic tmTNF/TNFR2 promotes IL-2 production that inhibits the generation of Th17 cells in a Foxp3-independent manner. Moreover, under Th17-polarizing conditions, selective blockade of CD4(+) T cell-intrinsic TNFR2 appears to be sufficient to promote Th17 differentiation.
Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.