Effect of Insulin Dilution on Lowering Glycemic Variability in Pump-Treated Young Children with Inadequately Controlled Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2015 Sep;17(9):605-10. doi: 10.1089/dia.2014.0392. Epub 2015 Aug 13.


Background: We investigated whether in young children with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes and technical problems with continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin at 100 units/mL the switch to insulin diluted to 10 units/mL (U10) can limit technical problems and improve glycemic control.

Subjects and methods: Diluted U10 insulin was started in three children 3.8, 3.2, and 1.3 years old with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (mean±SD) of 8.1±0.17% (65±1.7 mmol/mol) and insulin dose of 8.80±2.93 units/day. Patients were evaluated with continuous glucose monitoring (iPro™2; Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) and a quality of life questionnaire (PedsQL™; www.pedsql.org/ ) and surveyed for pump-related problems at baseline and after 3 and 9 months of U10 insulin therapy.

Results: Continuous glucose monitoring records showed that glycemic variability assessed by SD and M100 decreased significantly (P=0.0085 and P=0.0482, respectively). HbA1c levels dropped to 7.3±1.00% (56±11.0 mmol/mol) after 3 months and to 6.7±0.55% (50±6.1 mmol/mol) after 9 months (P=0.12). Technical difficulties were minimized.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the use of U10 insulin decreases glycemic variability and improves hampered pump therapy in young children with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / psychology
  • Equipment Failure*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Infant
  • Infusions, Subcutaneous / instrumentation*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Parents / psychology
  • Quality of Life


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human