Comprehensive Cardiovascular Risk Factor Control Improves Survival: The BARI 2D Trial

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Aug 18;66(7):765-773. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.06.019.


Background: It is unclear whether achieving multiple risk factor (RF) goals through protocol-guided intensive medical therapy is feasible or improves outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Objectives: This study sought to quantify the relationship between achieved RF goals in the BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Investigation Revascularization 2 Diabetes) trial and cardiovascular events/survival.

Methods: We performed a nonrandomized analysis of survival/cardiovascular events and control of 6 RFs (no smoking, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dl, triglycerides <150 mg/dl, blood pressure [systolic <130 mm Hg; diastolic <80 mm Hg], glycosylated hemoglobin <7%) in BARI 2D. Cox models with time-varying number of RFs in control were adjusted for baseline number of RFs in control, clinical characteristics, and trial randomization assignments.

Results: In 2,265 patients (mean age 62 years, 29% women) followed up for 5 years, the mean ± SD number of RFs in control improved from 3.5 ± 1.4 at baseline to 4.2 ± 1.3 at 5 years (p < 0.0001). The number of RFs in control during the trial was strongly related to death (global p = 0.0010) and the composite of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (global p = 0.0035) in fully adjusted models. Participants with 0 to 2 RFs in control during follow-up had a 2-fold higher risk of death (hazard ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 3.3; p = 0.0031) and a 1.7-fold higher risk of the composite endpoint (hazard ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 2.5; p = 0.0043), compared with those with 6 RFs in control.

Conclusions: Simultaneous control of multiple RFs through protocol-guided intensive medical therapy is feasible and relates to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes [BARI 2D]; NCT00006305).

Keywords: blood pressure; cholesterol; coronary heart disease; diabetes mellitus; glycosylated hemoglobin A; smoking.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / mortality*
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / trends
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy*
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / mortality*
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / trends
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / mortality*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate / trends

Supplementary concepts

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2

Associated data