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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2016;35(1):41-9.
doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1032442. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Instant Oatmeal Increases Satiety and Reduces Energy Intake Compared to a Ready-to-Eat Oat-Based Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Trial

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Instant Oatmeal Increases Satiety and Reduces Energy Intake Compared to a Ready-to-Eat Oat-Based Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Candida J Rebello et al. J Am Coll Nutr. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat and help adherence to calorie restriction. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 oat-based breakfast cereals on appetite, satiety, and food intake.

Methods: Forty-eight healthy individuals, 18 years of age or older, were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric servings of either oatmeal or an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) in random order at least a week apart. Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. Lunch was served 4 hours after breakfast. The physicochemical properties of oat soluble fiber (β-glucan) were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Food intake and β-glucan properties were analyzed using t tests.

Results: Oatmeal increased fullness (p = 0.001) and reduced hunger (p = 0.005), desire to eat (p = 0.001), and prospective intake (p = 0.006) more than the RTEC. Energy intake at lunch was lower after eating oatmeal compared to the RTEC (p = 0.012). Oatmeal had higher viscosity (p = 0.03), β-glucan content, molecular weight (p < 0.001), and radius of gyration (p < 0.001) than the RTEC.

Conclusions: Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces energy intake compared to the RTEC. The physicochemical properties of β-glucan and sufficient hydration of oats are important factors affecting satiety and subsequent energy intake.

Keywords: energy intake; oats; physicochemical properties; satiety; β-glucan.

Figures

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Visual analog scale ratings (n = 48) before and after consumption of oatmeal and an RTEC. Oatmeal increased satiety across all measures: (A) Hunger ratings: *Differences in least squares means (LSM) were significantly different at 120 minutes (p = 0.005), 180 minutes (p < 0.001), and 240 minutes (p = 0.012). (B) Fullness ratings: *Differences in LSM were significant at 120 minutes (p = 0.019), 180 minutes (p = 0.002). and 240 minutes (p = 0.049). (C) Desire to eat ratings: *Differences in LSM were significant at 120 minutes (p < 0.001), 180 minutes (p < 0.001), and 240 minutes (p = 0.007). (D) Prospective food intake ratings: *Differences in LSM were significant at 120 minutes (p < 0.001), 180 minutes (p = 0.004), and 240 minutes (p = 0.002). Values are mean ± standard error.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Energy and food intake at lunch meal following consumption of RTEC and oatmeal at breakfast (n = 48). Values are mean ± standard error. Asterisk indicates a significant difference (p = 0.012).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.
Macronutrient intake at lunch meal following consumption of RTEC and oatmeal at breakfast (n = 48). Values are mean ± standard error. Asterisks indicate a significant difference (p < 0.05).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.
(A) Average molecular weight (Mw) in Daltons (Da) and (B) radius of gyration in nanometers (nm) of the β-glucan content of oatmeal and the RTEC. *Both outcomes were significantly different at p < 0.001. Values are mean ± standard deviation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.
Median viscosities of oatmeal and RTEC meals after oral and initial gastric digestion observed in the in vitro study. Viscosity values are the median of 3 replicates and expressed in centipoise (cP) ± interquartile range. Asterisk indicates a significant difference (p = 0.03).

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