Instant Oatmeal Increases Satiety and Reduces Energy Intake Compared to a Ready-to-Eat Oat-Based Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Trial

J Am Coll Nutr. 2016;35(1):41-9. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1032442. Epub 2015 Aug 14.


Background: Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat and help adherence to calorie restriction. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 oat-based breakfast cereals on appetite, satiety, and food intake.

Methods: Forty-eight healthy individuals, 18 years of age or older, were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric servings of either oatmeal or an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) in random order at least a week apart. Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. Lunch was served 4 hours after breakfast. The physicochemical properties of oat soluble fiber (β-glucan) were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Food intake and β-glucan properties were analyzed using t tests.

Results: Oatmeal increased fullness (p = 0.001) and reduced hunger (p = 0.005), desire to eat (p = 0.001), and prospective intake (p = 0.006) more than the RTEC. Energy intake at lunch was lower after eating oatmeal compared to the RTEC (p = 0.012). Oatmeal had higher viscosity (p = 0.03), β-glucan content, molecular weight (p < 0.001), and radius of gyration (p < 0.001) than the RTEC.

Conclusions: Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces energy intake compared to the RTEC. The physicochemical properties of β-glucan and sufficient hydration of oats are important factors affecting satiety and subsequent energy intake.

Keywords: energy intake; oats; physicochemical properties; satiety; β-glucan.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Area Under Curve
  • Avena / chemistry*
  • Breakfast*
  • Cooking
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Edible Grain / chemistry*
  • Energy Intake / drug effects*
  • Fast Foods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lunch
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Weight
  • Prospective Studies
  • Satiation
  • Satiety Response / drug effects*
  • Viscosity
  • Young Adult
  • beta-Glucans / chemistry
  • beta-Glucans / pharmacology


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • beta-Glucans