The pathophysiology of otosclerosis: Review of current research

Hear Res. 2015 Dec;330(Pt A):51-6. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2015.07.014. Epub 2015 Aug 12.


Otosclerosis is a complex disease of the human otic capsule with highest incidence in adult Caucasians. So far, many possible etiological factors like genetics, HLA, autoimmunity, viruses, inflammation, and hormones have been investigated but still the development of the disease remains unclear. Currently, the surgical replacement of stapes (stapedotomy) remains the best possible treatment option. In this review, we analyze different etiological factors studied so far in otosclerosis pathophysiology and discuss most recent findings and possible new research pathways.

Keywords: Hearing loss; Otosclerosis; Pathophysiology; Stapes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin II / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity
  • Collagen / metabolism
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • HLA Antigens / metabolism
  • Hearing Loss / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Measles virus
  • Otosclerosis / metabolism
  • Otosclerosis / physiopathology*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Stapes / physiopathology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism


  • HLA Antigens
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Angiotensin II
  • Collagen