Designing Media for Visually-Impaired Users of Refreshable Touch Displays: Possibilities and Pitfalls

IEEE Trans Haptics. 2015 Jul-Sep;8(3):248-57. doi: 10.1109/TOH.2015.2466231. Epub 2015 Aug 10.


This paper discusses issues of importance to designers of media for visually impaired users. The paper considers the influence of human factors on the effectiveness of presentation as well as the strengths and weaknesses of tactile, vibrotactile, haptic, and multimodal methods of rendering maps, graphs, and models. The authors, all of whom are visually impaired researchers in this domain, present findings from their own work and work of many others who have contributed to the current understanding of how to prepare and render images for both hard-copy and technology-mediated presentation of Braille and tangible graphics.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blindness / rehabilitation
  • Communications Media
  • Data Display*
  • Equipment Design*
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Sensory Aids*
  • Therapeutic Touch
  • Touch*
  • User-Computer Interface
  • Visually Impaired Persons / rehabilitation*