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. 2015;16(12):1111-9.
doi: 10.2174/1389201016666150817094258.

N-(4-bromophenethyl) Caffeamide Inhibits Melanogenesis by Regulating AKT/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta/Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor and Tyrosinase-related Protein 1/Tyrosinase

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N-(4-bromophenethyl) Caffeamide Inhibits Melanogenesis by Regulating AKT/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta/Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor and Tyrosinase-related Protein 1/Tyrosinase

Yueh-Hsiung Kuo et al. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. .

Abstract

Skin color is primarily produced by melanin, which is a crucial pigment that protects the skin from UV-induced damage and prevents carcinogenesis. However, accumulated melanin in the skin may cause hyperpigmentation and related disorders. Melanin synthesis comprises consecutive oxidative reactions, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting process of melanogenesis. In this study, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 contributed to melanin formation. N-(4-bromophenethyl) caffeamide ((E)-N-(4-bromophenethyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylamide; K36H), a caffeic acid phenyl amide derivative, inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16F0 cells. In addition, K36H reduced the protein expression of the phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and TRP-1. Moreover, K36H promoted AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting MITF transcription activity. Thus, K36H attenuated α-MSH-induced cAMP pathways, contributing to hypopigmentation. The results of a safety assay revealed that K36H did not exhibit cytotoxicity or irritate the skin or eyes. According to these results, K36H may have the potential to be used as a whitening agent in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

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