Moyamoya disease susceptibility gene RNF213 links inflammatory and angiogenic signals in endothelial cells

Sci Rep. 2015 Aug 17:5:13191. doi: 10.1038/srep13191.


Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by occlusive lesions of the circle of Willis. To date, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated for pathogenesis of MMD. Allelic variations in RNF213 are known to confer the risk of MMD; however, functional roles of RNF213 remain to be largely elusive. We herein report that pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNG and TNFA, synergistically activated transcription of RNF213 both in vitro and in vivo. Using various chemical inhibitors, we found that AKT and PKR pathways contributed to the transcriptional activation of RNF213. Transcriptome-wide analysis and subsequent validation with quantitative PCR supported that endogenous expression of cell cycle-promoting genes were significantly decreased with knockdown of RNF213 in cultured endothelial cells. Consistently, these cells showed less proliferative and less angiogenic profiles. Chemical inhibitors for AKT (LY294002) and PKR (C16) disrupted their angiogenic potentials, suggesting that RNF213 and its upstream pathways cooperatively organize the process of angiogenesis. Furthermore, RNF213 down-regulated expressions of matrix metalloproteases in endothelial cells, but not in fibroblasts or other cell types. Altogether, our data illustrate that RNF213 plays unique roles in endothelial cells for proper gene expressions in response to inflammatory signals from environments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chromones / pharmacology
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Female
  • Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / pharmacology
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Morpholines / pharmacology
  • Moyamoya Disease / genetics*
  • Moyamoya Disease / pathology
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics*
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism
  • eIF-2 Kinase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • eIF-2 Kinase / metabolism


  • Chromones
  • Morpholines
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
  • Interferon-gamma
  • RNF213 protein, human
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • eIF-2 Kinase
  • MMP1 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases

Supplementary concepts

  • Moyamoya disease 1