B5-fixed/paraffin-embedded Jamshidi needle biopsies from 125 multiple myeloma patients were reviewed according to both morphological and immunohistological criteria. At microscopic examination, the following parameters were evaluated: i) grade of malignancy (low = 56; intermediate = 50; high = 19); ii) growth pattern (interstitial +/- sheets/nodules = 90; nodular = 13; packed marrow = 18; sarcomatous = 4); III) histological stage (I = 64; II = 35; III = 26). Comparison of the findings in trephine biopsies and aspirates showed that in 30% of the cases the latter led to an underestimation of the tumor burden. Immunohistochemical determination of Ig easily allowed: i) differential diagnosis from exuberant reactive plasmacytosis; ii) recognition and counting of neoplastic plasma cells; iii) detection of minimal residual disease after treatment. Immunohistochemistry also confirmed phenotypic aberration of neoplastic plasma cells, showing positivity for CD45, EMA, and cytokeratins in 14%, 59%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. Furthermore, it displayed expression of the P-glycoprotein in 4/8 resistant cases. These findings underline that routinely processed Jamshidi needle biopsies can be of great value in the study of patients with multiple myeloma.