Background: To date, conflicting results have been reported about the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodonttitis.
Methods: Two hundred and eighty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from outpatients visiting diabetes clinics in Islamic Hospital, Amman-Jordan. The oral hygiene and the periodontal status of all teeth, excluding third molars, were assessed using the plaque index of Silness and Löe, the gingival index of Löe and Silness, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Data were analyzed using the general linear model multivariate procedure with average PPD, average CAL, percent of teeth with CAL ≥3 mm, and percent of teeth with PPD ≥3 mm as outcome variables and diabetes, MetS and its individual components as predictors.
Results: Overall, 83.2 % of patients with diabetes had MetS. In the multivariate analysis, patients with MetS had a significantly more severe periodontitis, as measured by average PPD and average CAL (P < 0.005). The extent of periodontitis, as measured by the percent of teeth with CAL ≥3 mm and the percent of teeth with PPD ≥3 mm, was also significantly greater among patients with MetS (P < 0.005). As the number of metabolic components additional to diabetes increased, the odds of having periodontitis increased, and the odds were greatest when all the components additional to diabetes were present (OR = 10.77, 95 % CI: 2.23 -51.95).
Conclusion: Patients with MetS displayed more severe and extensive periodontitis. Having other MetS components additional to diabetes increased the odds of having periodontitis.
Keywords: Diabetes; Metabolic syndrome; Periodontitis.