The effectiveness of a preventive health program and vitamin D status in improving health-related quality of life of older Canadians

Qual Life Res. 2016 Mar;25(3):661-8. doi: 10.1007/s11136-015-1103-7. Epub 2015 Aug 18.


Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of a preventive health program and vitamin D status in improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of older residents of Canada.

Design: We analyzed baseline and follow-up data of 2119 volunteers of a community program that promotes healthy lifestyles and encourages vitamin D supplementation. We examined the program effect on each of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D-5L, HRQOL score, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) using multivariable regression methods. We further examined the specific contribution of vitamin D status as quantified by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D).

Results: Problems with mobility, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and depression/anxiety were reported less during follow-up compared to baseline. On average, participants' HRQOL had improved by 0.018 units at 6 months and 0.025 units at 1 year of follow-up. Improvements in vitamin D status were independently associated with improvements in HRQOL and in QALYs. As per 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D, there was a 0.002 increase in HRQOL and a 0.001 increase in QALYs.

Conclusions: This study documents the benefits of a real-world preventive health program to HRQOL. It is the first to reveal that improvements in vitamin D status parallel improvements in HRQOL among healthy community dwellers. The study further suggests that the preventive health program and supplementation with vitamin D are cost-effective interventions.

Keywords: Disease prevention; Health-related quality of life; Intervention; Nutrition; Public health; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Canada
  • Depression / drug therapy
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Female
  • Health Promotion / methods*
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life*
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Regression Analysis
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D