Understanding the ability of cytotoxic oncology drugs, and their carriers and formulation excipients, to induce pro-inflammatory responses is important for establishing safe and efficacious formulations. Literature data about cytokine response induction by the traditional formulation of paclitaxel, Taxol®, are controversial, and no data are available about the pro-inflammatory profile of the nano-albumin formulation of this drug, Abraxane®. Herein, we demonstrate and explain the difference in the cytokine induction profile between Taxol® and Abraxane®, and describe a novel mechanism of cytokine induction by a nanosized excipient, Cremophor EL, which is not unique to Taxol® and is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry for delivery of a wide variety of small molecular drugs.
From the clinical editor: Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the production of many nano-formulation drugs. The cellular response to drugs has been reported to be different between traditional and nano-formulations. In this article, the authors investigated and compared cytokine response induction profiles between Taxol® and Abraxane®. The findings here provided further understanding to create drugs with better safety profiles.
Keywords: Abraxane®; Cremophor-EL; Cytokines; Immunotoxicity; Interleukin 8; Oxidative stress; Paclitaxel; Taxol®.
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