Association studies of genomic variants with treatment response to risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine and chlorpromazine in the Chinese Han population

Pharmacogenomics J. 2016 Aug;16(4):357-65. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2015.61. Epub 2015 Aug 18.


Schizophrenia is a widespread mental disease with a prevalence of about 1% in the world population. Continuous long-term treatment is required to maintain social functioning and prevent symptom relapse of schizophrenia patients. However, there are considerable individual differences in response to the antipsychotic drugs. There is a pressing need to identify more drug-response-related markers. But most pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia have typically focused on a few candidate genes in small sample size. In this study, 995 subjects were selected for discovering the drug-response-related markers. A total of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 25 genes have been investigated for four commonly used antipsychotic drugs in China: risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine, and chlorpromazine. Significant associations with treatment response for several genes, such as CYP2D6, CYP2C19, COMT, ABCB1, DRD3 and HTR2C have been verified in our study. Also, we found several new candidate genes (TNIK, RELN, NOTCH4 and SLC6A2) and combinations (haplotype rs1544325-rs5993883-rs6269-rs4818 in COMT) that are associated with treatment response to the four drugs. Also, multivariate interactions analysis demonstrated the combination of rs6269 in COMT and rs3813929 in HTR2C may work as a predictor to improve the clinical antipsychotic response. So our study is of great significance to improve current knowledge on the pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia, thus promoting the implementation of personalized medicine in schizophrenia.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 18 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.61.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Asians / genetics*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • China
  • Chlorpromazine / therapeutic use*
  • Clozapine / therapeutic use*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing
  • Pharmacogenomic Variants / genetics*
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Quetiapine Fumarate / therapeutic use*
  • Reelin Protein
  • Risk Factors
  • Risperidone / therapeutic use*
  • Schizophrenia / diagnosis
  • Schizophrenia / drug therapy*
  • Schizophrenia / ethnology
  • Schizophrenia / genetics*
  • Schizophrenic Psychology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Reelin Protein
  • Quetiapine Fumarate
  • RELN protein, human
  • Clozapine
  • Risperidone
  • Chlorpromazine