Introduction: A recent metabolomic screen of sera from patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) found reduction of antioxidants and substrates for energy generation. These metabolic alterations may underlie one of the most common features of SLE--fatigue. The metabolomic studies also noted reduced omega-3 fatty acids, which are powerful anti- oxidants. This deficiency may be causally related to oxidative stress, inflammation, disease activity, and fatigue in SLE. Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids using fish oil in SLE has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in other studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation on clinical measures of fatigue, quality of life, and disease activity as part of a randomized clinical trial.
Methods: Fifty SLE patients recruited in outpatient clinics were randomized 1:1 to fish oil supplementation or olive oil placebo, and blinded to their treatment group. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, RAND Short Form-36 (RAND SF-36), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and Physician Global Assessment (PGA) were completed; serum was also collected for soluble mediator analysis.
Results: Thirty-two patients completed the study. PGA improved significantly in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.015). The RAND SF-36 Energy/fatigue and Emotional well-being scores demonstrated improvement trends (p = 0.092 and 0.070). No clear difference was seen in FSS and SLEDAI (p = 0.350 and p = 0.417). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum IL-12 were reduced (p = 0.008 and p = 0.058); while serum IL-13 was increased by fish oil supplementation (p = 0.033).
Conclusions: In this randomized, placebo-controlled 6-month trial, SLE patients randomized to fish oil supplementation demonstrated improvement in their PGA, RAND SF-36, and some circulating inflammatory markers.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02021513 (registered 13 December 2013).