Objective: Serum urate levels have been associated with risk for and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Urate-related compounds are therapeutic candidates in neuroprotective efforts to slow PD progression. A urate-elevating agent is currently under investigation as a potential disease-modifying strategy in people with PD. However, PD is a heterogeneous disorder, and genetic variation may explain divergence in disease severity and progression.
Methods: We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify gene variant × serum urate interaction effects on the striatal (123) I-ioflupane (DaTscan) binding ratio measured using single photon emission computed tomography in patients with possible PD from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI, n = 360). Follow-up analyses were conducted to assess gene variant × serum urate interaction effects on magnetic resonance imaging-derived regional brain volumes and clinical status. We then attempted to replicate our primary analysis in patients who entered the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial (PRECEPT) with a clinical diagnosis of PD (n = 349).
Results: Rs1109303 (T>G) variant within the INPP5K gene on chromosome 17p13.3 demonstrated a genome-wide significant interaction with serum urate level to predict striatal dopamine transporter density among all PPMI participants (n = 359) with possible PD (p = 2.01 × 10(-8) ; after excluding participants with SWEDD [scan without evidence of dopaminergic deficit]: p = 1.12 × 10(-9) ; n = 316). Independent of striatal dopamine transporter density, similar effects on brain atrophy, bradykinesia, anxiety, and depression were observed. No effect was present in the PRECEPT sample at baseline; however, in non-SWEDD PD participants in PRECEPT (n = 309), we observed a significant longitudinal genotype × serum urate interaction effect, consistent in direction with the PPMI sample, on progression of striatal dopamine transporter density over the 22-month follow-up.
Interpretation: Genetic profile combined with serum urate level can be used to predict disease severity and potential disease progression in patients with PD. These results may be relevant to therapeutic efforts targeting the urate pathway.
© 2015 American Neurological Association.