Predictors of Individual Response to Placebo or Tadalafil 5mg among Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Integrated Clinical Data Mining Analysis

PLoS One. 2015 Aug 18;10(8):e0135484. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135484. eCollection 2015.


Background: A significant percentage of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) achieve clinically meaningful improvement when receiving placebo or tadalafil 5mg once daily. However, individual patient characteristics associated with treatment response are unknown.

Methods: This integrated clinical data mining analysis was designed to identify factors associated with a clinically meaningful response to placebo or tadalafil 5mg once daily in an individual patient with LUTS-BPH. Analyses were performed on pooled data from four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical studies, including about 1,500 patients, from which 107 baseline characteristics were selected and 8 response criteria. The split set evaluation method (1,000 repeats) was used to estimate prediction accuracy, with the database randomly split into training and test subsets. Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) models were then generated on the training subset and used to predict response in the test subset. Prediction models were generated for placebo and tadalafil 5mg once daily Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis was used to select optimal prediction models lying on the ROC surface.

Findings: International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) baseline group (mild/moderate vs. severe) for active treatment and placebo achieved the highest combined sensitivity and specificity of 70% and ~50% for all analyses, respectively. This was below the sensitivity and specificity threshold of 80% that would enable reliable allocation of an individual patient to either the responder or non-responder group.

Conclusions: This extensive clinical data mining study in LUTS-BPH did not identify baseline clinical or demographic characteristics that were sufficiently predictive of an individual patient response to placebo or once daily tadalafil 5mg. However, the study reaffirms the efficacy of tadalalfil 5mg once daily in the treatment of LUTS-BPH in the majority of patients and the importance of evaluating individual patient need in selecting the most appropriate treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Data Mining*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / drug therapy*
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / etiology
  • Male
  • Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Precision Medicine*
  • Prognosis
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / complications*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Tadalafil / therapeutic use*


  • Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors
  • Tadalafil

Grant support

This work was funded by Eli Lilly and Company. The funders were involved in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish and preparation of the manuscript.