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, 47 (4), 370-4

Study of Acute Transfusion Reactions in a Teaching Hospital of Sikkim: A Hemovigilance Initiative

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Study of Acute Transfusion Reactions in a Teaching Hospital of Sikkim: A Hemovigilance Initiative

Dhruva Kumar Sharma et al. Indian J Pharmacol.

Abstract

Objective: Blood transfusions are inherently associated with risks ranging in severity from minor to life-threatening. Continuous monitoring of transfusion related complications can promote understanding of factors contributing to transfusion reactions and help to formulate necessary remedial measures. This study was designed to analyze the frequency and nature of transfusion reactions reported to the blood bank of a remote North East Indian teaching hospital.

Materials and methods: All acute transfusion reactions (ATRs) reported to the blood bank over a period of 20 months (May 2013 to January 2015) were reviewed and analyzed. The risk of transfusion reactions associated with each individual component was assessed.

Results: A total of 3455 units of whole blood and component transfusions were carried out of which a total of 32 (0.92%) ATRs were encountered. Packed red blood cells (PRBCs) (n = 15, P = 0.06) and whole blood (WB) (n = 13, P = 0.83) were most commonly implicated. Allergic reaction was the most frequent transfusion reaction encountered (65.6%), seen most commonly with PRBC (risk of 0.76%, P = 0.42), and WB (risk of 0.68%, P = 0.63) transfusions. This was followed by febrile reactions (28.1%), which were seen more commonly with PRBCs (risk of 0.57%, P = 0.016). No reactions were observed with platelet transfusions.

Conclusion: The overall incidence of transfusion reactions in this hospital is slightly higher than those having more advanced transfusion facilities in India. The lack of leukoreduction facilities in our hospital could be a likely cause for the same. The use of leukoreduced WB and PRBCs could possibly reduce the overall incidence of ATRs in general and febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions in particular.

Keywords: Acute transfusion reactions; allergic reactions; febrile reactions; hemovigilance; transfusion related adverse events.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Relative frequency of acute transfusion reactions
Figure 2
Figure 2
Relative frequency of departments reporting acute transfusion reactions
Figure 3
Figure 3
Frequency of clinical manifestations related to the acute transfusion reactions

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