Cholera is a severe diarrhoeal illness caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. From July 2009 to late 2011 Papua New Guinea (PNG) experienced thefirst outbreak of cholera ever reported in this country. During this time > 15,000 cases of cholera were reported, resulting in approximately 500 deaths. The origin of this outbreak is unknown, but considering the remote location of the initial outbreak an infected international traveller is unlikely to be the source. In this paper we review the characteristics of the PNG cholera outbreak and discuss the ongoing threat of cholera to the country and the region.