Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;102(4):729-35. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.113266. Epub 2015 Aug 19.


Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake.

Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and umami) on food intake, hunger and fullness, gastrointestinal symptoms, and gastrointestinal peptide release.

Design: Fifteen healthy volunteers [6 male; mean ± SEM age: 23.9 ± 2.0 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.4 ± 0.3] received 5 treatments in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Test days started with the insertion of a nasoduodenal catheter followed by a standardized liquid breakfast. Participants received an intraduodenal infusion 150 min after breakfast, containing quinine (bitter), rebaudioside A (sweet), monosodium glutamate (umami), a combination of the 3 tastants, or placebo (tap water) over a period of 60 min. Food intake was measured during an ad libitum meal, and visual analog scales were used to monitor gastrointestinal complaints and hunger and fullness scores. Blood samples were drawn at regular intervals for cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) analysis.

Results: Infusion of the combination of tastants substantially decreased food intake (422 ± 97 compared with 486 ± 104 kcal for placebo, P < 0.05), whereas both a combination of tastants and umami decreased hunger scores compared with placebo. No change in cholecystokinin, GLP-1, or PYY concentrations was observed during the infusions. Intraduodenal infusions of the tastants did not result in gastrointestinal symptoms.

Conclusions: Intraduodenal infusion of umami and a combination of tastants inhibits feelings of hunger, but only the latter also reduces food intake. However, these alterations were not accompanied by changes in the plasma concentrations of the gut-derived peptides cholecystokinin, GLP-1, or PYY. This trial was registered at as NCT01956838.

Keywords: food intake; gastrointestinal peptides; intraduodenal infusion; tastants.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Breakfast
  • Cholecystokinin / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diterpenes, Kaurane / administration & dosage*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Duodenum / drug effects
  • Duodenum / metabolism
  • Energy Intake / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Flavoring Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood
  • Humans
  • Hunger / drug effects
  • Male
  • Peptide YY / blood
  • Quinine / administration & dosage*
  • Satiation / drug effects
  • Sodium Glutamate / administration & dosage*
  • Taste / drug effects
  • Taste Perception / drug effects
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Diterpenes, Kaurane
  • Flavoring Agents
  • Peptide YY
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Quinine
  • rebaudioside A
  • Sodium Glutamate

Associated data