Objectives: To assess the adjuvant effect of metformin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to clomiphene citrate (CC) in induction of ovulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients.
Study design: 120 women with PCOS were randomly divided into three equal groups: group I received CC only, group II received CC plus NAC and group III received CC plus metformin.
Results: There was a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding average number of ovulatory follicles >18 mm (2.25 versus 1.75 and 1.89, respectively), but no significant difference between the three study groups regarding number of intermediate follicles 14-18 mm (4, 10 and 4, respectively). There was no significant difference between the three study groups regarding occurrence and laterality of ovulation, pregnancy rate per cycle but a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding pregnancy rate per patient (20% versus 10% and 10%, respectively, p value 0.05). There was a highly statistically significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding peak endometrial thickness (7.3 ± 1.1 versus 5.4 ± 0.6 and 5.3 ± 0.6, respectively).
Conclusions: NAC as an adjuvant to CC for induction of ovulation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with beneficial impacts on endometrial thickness.
Keywords: Clomiphene citrate; N-acetylcysteine; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; induction of ovulation; metformin.