Objective: Our aim was to study risk factors associated with the prevalence, incidence and remission of urinary incontinence (UI) between 4 and 24 months postpartum.
Design: Longitudinal study (EDEN cohort).
Setting: Two French university hospitals.
Population: 1643 women completed the questionnaire at 4 months and 1409 at 24 months, including 1354 who completed it both times.
Methods: Multivariate analyses identified risk factors for UI prevalence at 24 months postpartum, persistent UI versus remission, de novo UI versus continence, de novo UI versus persistent UI, and changes in IU severity between 4 and 24 months postpartum.
Main outcome measures: Postnatal UI and Sandvik UI severity score.
Results: UI prevalence was 20.7% (340/1643) at 4 months and 19.9% (280/1409) at 24 months. Significant factors associated with UI at 24 months were older age [OR = 1.07/year (95%CI 1.04-1.11)], BMI [2.35 (1.44-3.85) ≥30 versus <25 kg/m²], higher parity [1.77 (1.14-2.76) ≥3 versus 1], breastfeeding [1.54 (1.08-2.19) ≥3 versus < 3 months], pregnant at follow up [3.44 (2.25-5.26)], and caesarean delivery [0.62 (0.40-0.97) versus vaginal] [OR, odds ratio (CI, confidence interval)]. The likelihood of UI remission at 24 months was 51.9% (149/287). Caesarean delivery was associated with increased likelihood of UI remission [0.43 (0.19-0.97)]. The risk of de novo UI at 24 months was 12.5% (135/1067) and was associated with a new pregnancy [3.63 (2.13-6.20)].
Conclusions: Between 4 and 24 months postpartum UI, remission occurred in half of the cases. These postnatal UI changes were essentially related to mode of delivery and subsequent pregnancy.
Tweetable abstract: Postnatal urinary incontinence progression is mostly related with mode of delivery and subsequent pregnancy.
Keywords: Cohort; female urinary incontinence; incidence; postpartum; pregnancy; remission.
© 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.