An update on barriers to adolescent human papillomavirus vaccination in the USA

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14(10):1377-84. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2015.1078240. Epub 2015 Aug 13.


Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the USA. It is the primary cause of almost all cervical cancers as well as several other cancers that affect both men and women. Adolescents of both genders can now prevent transmission of the most common oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus by obtaining a safe, three-dose vaccine series. However, despite its potential to save lives and reduce severe morbidity, many US adolescents have not been vaccinated. This is in contrast to other countries where high rates of vaccination are already reducing rates of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and genital warts. This article describes barriers recently reported among families in the USA and concludes with suggestions for improving uptake.

Keywords: HPV vaccine; awareness; barriers; cancer prevention; human papillomavirus; provider recommendation; vaccination.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / immunology
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / prevention & control
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology
  • Condylomata Acuminata / immunology
  • Condylomata Acuminata / prevention & control
  • Condylomata Acuminata / virology
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Papillomaviridae / immunology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / immunology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / economics*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / prevention & control
  • United States
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines