Resolution of inflammation is an active counter-regulatory mechanism involving polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived proresolving lipid mediators. Postoperative intestinal motility disturbances, clinically known as postoperative ileus, occur frequently after abdominal surgery and are mediated by a complex inflammation of the intestinal muscularis externa. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that proresolving lipid mediators are involved in the resolution of postoperative ileus. In a standardized experimental model of postoperative ileus, we detected strong expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase within the postoperative muscularis externa of C57BL/6 mice, predominately located within CX3CR1(+)/Ly6C(+) infiltrating monocytes rather than Ly6G(+) neutrophils. Mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that a 12/15-lipoxygenase increase was accompanied by production of docosahexaenoic acid-derived lipid mediators, particularly protectin DX and resolvin D2, and their common precursor 17-hydroxy docosahexaenoic acid. Perioperative administration of protectin DX, but not resolvin D2 diminished blood-derived leukocyte infiltration into the surgically manipulated muscularis externa and improved the gastrointestinal motility. Flow cytometry analyses showed impaired Ly6G(+)/Ly6C(+) neutrophil extravasation after protectin DX treatment, whereas Ly6G(-)/Ly6C(+) monocyte numbers were not affected. 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient mice, lacking endogenous protectin DX synthesis, demonstrated increased postoperative leukocyte levels. Preoperative intravenous administration of a docosahexaenoic acid-rich lipid emulsion reduced postoperative leukocyte infiltration in wild-type mice but failed in 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient mice mice. Protectin DX application reduced leukocyte influx and rescued 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient mice mice from postoperative ileus. In conclusion, our results show that 12/15-lipoxygenase mediates postoperative ileus resolution via production of proresolving docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin DX. Perioperative, parenteral protectin DX or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation, as well as modulation of the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway, may be instrumental in prevention of postoperative ileus.
Keywords: lipid; monocytes; resolution.
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