Interface dipole determines the electronic energy alignment in donor/acceptor interfaces and plays an important role in organic photovoltaics. Here we present a study combining first principles density functional theory (DFT) with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to investigate the interface dipole, energy level alignment, and structural properties at the interface between CuPc and C60. DFT finds a sizable interface dipole for the face-on orientation, in quantitative agreement with the UPS measurement, and rules out charge transfer as the origin of the interface dipole. Using TOF-SIMS, we show that the interfacial morphology for the bilayer CuPc/C60 film is characterized by molecular intermixing, containing both the face-on and the edge-on orientation. The complementary experimental and theoretical results provide both insight into the origin of the interface dipole and direct evidence for the effect of interfacial morphology on the interface dipole.
Keywords: density-functional theory; electronic level alignment; interface dipole; morphology; organic photovoltaics; time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy.