The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPTF) recognizes that behaviors have a major impact on health and well-being. Currently, the USPSTF has 11 behavioral counseling intervention (BCI) recommendations. These BCIs can be delivered in a primary care setting or patients can be referred to other clinical or community programs. Unfortunately, many recommended BCIs are infrequently and ineffectually delivered, suggesting that more evidence is needed to understand which BCIs are feasible and referable. In response, the USPSTF convened an expert forum in 2013 to inform the evaluation of BCI feasibility. This manuscript reports on findings from the forum and proposes that researchers use several frameworks to help clinicians and the USPSTF evaluate which BCIs work under usual conditions. A key recommendation for BCI researchers is to use frameworks whose components can support dissemination and implementation efforts. These frameworks include the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), which helps describe the essential components of an intervention, and pragmatic frameworks like Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) or Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS), which help to report study design elements and outcomes. These frameworks can both guide the design of more-feasible BCIs and produce clearer feasibility evidence. Critical evidence gaps include a better understanding of which patients will benefit from a BCI, how flexible interventions can be without compromising effectiveness, required clinician expertise, necessary intervention intensity and follow-up, impact of patient and clinician intervention adherence, optimal conditions for BCI delivery, and how new care models will influence BCI feasibility.
Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.