Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the graded chronic pain scale

Reumatol Clin. 2016 May-Jun;12(3):130-8. doi: 10.1016/j.reuma.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Aug 19.
[Article in English, Spanish]


Objective: To adapt the Graded Chronic Pain Scale for use in Primary care patients in Spain, and to assess its psychometric properties.

Methods: Clinical measures observational study investigating the severity of chronic pain. The methodology included a process of translation and back-translation following the international guidelines. Study participants were 75 patients who experienced lower back pain for more than six months and were sent to Primary Care physiotherapy units. Internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, floor and ceiling effects, and answering capacity were analysed.

Results: The Spanish version of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale had a high internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.81. Regarding construct validity, it was identified that two factors explained 72.37% of the variance. Convergent validity showed a moderate positive correlation with the Visual Analogue Scale, the activity avoidance subscale of the Tampa Scale of Kinesophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Roland-Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire, and the FearAvoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. A moderate negative correlation was identified with the Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale. The mean time of questionnaire administration was 2minutes and 28seconds.

Conclusions: The Spanish version of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale appears to be a valid, reliable, and useful tool for measuring chronic pain at an early stage in Primary Care settings in Spain.

Keywords: Atención primaria de salud; Chronic pain; Dolor crónico; Dolor de la región lumbar; Escalas; Estudios de validación; Low back pain; Primary health care; Scales; Severity of illness index; Traducción; Translations; Validation studies; Índice de severidad de la enfermedad.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Chronic Pain / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Low Back Pain / diagnosis*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain Measurement / methods*
  • Primary Health Care*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Psychometrics
  • Severity of Illness Index*
  • Spain
  • Translations