Race and ethnicity influences on cardiovascular and renal events in patients with diabetes mellitus

Am Heart J. 2015 Aug;170(2):322-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.05.008. Epub 2015 May 22.


Background: The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been consistently shown to be higher among blacks and Hispanics compared to whites with unmeasured risk factors and access to care as suggested explanations. In a high-risk cohort with frequent protocol-directed follow-up, we evaluated the influence of race on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and incidence of ESRD.

Methods: TREAT was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. This secondary analysis focused on role of race on outcomes. TREAT enrolled 4,038 patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate 20-60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), and anemia (hemoglobin level ≤11 g/dL) treated with either darbepoetin alfa or placebo. We compared self-described black and Hispanic patients to white patients with regard to baseline characteristics and outcomes, including mortality, CV outcomes (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, resuscitated sudden death, and coronary revascularization), and incident ESRD. Multivariate adjusted Cox models were developed for these outcomes.

Results: Black and Hispanic patients were younger, more likely women, had less prior CV disease, and higher blood pressure. During a mean follow-up of 2.4 years with comparable access to care, blacks and Hispanics had a greater risk of ESRD but a significant lower risk of myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization than whites. After adjusting for confounders, blacks remained at significantly greater risk of ESRD than whites (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.85, P < .001), whereas this ESRD risk did not persist among Hispanics.

Conclusion: Despite similar access to care and lower CV event rates, the risk of ESRD was higher among blacks and Hispanics than whites. For blacks, but not Hispanics, this increase was independent of known attributable risk factors.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00093015.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / ethnology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Darbepoetin alfa
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Erythropoietin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Erythropoietin / therapeutic use
  • Ethnicity*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Global Health
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Hematinics / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Racial Groups*
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors


  • Hematinics
  • Erythropoietin
  • Darbepoetin alfa

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00093015