Systemic lupus erythematosus and atherosclerosis: Review of the literature

Autoimmun Rev. 2016 Jan;15(1):16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2015.08.007. Epub 2015 Aug 20.


The purpose of this manuscript is to extensively review the literature related to systemic lupus erythematosus and atherosclerosis. The conclusion of this review has covered accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus, the role of complement, interferon in premature atherosclerosis, inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, leukocytes, innate and adaptive immunity, hydrolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species, vascular endothelial growth factor, toll receptors in lupus nephritis, several specific anti-inflammatory pharmacological therapies, and potential prevention strategies for atherothrombotic events, interferons and the inflammasome. It is important for allergist-immunologists, rheumatologists both in academic institutions and in practice to understand this important disorder.

Keywords: Adaptive immunity; Complement; Cytokines; Innate; Interferon.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atherosclerosis / immunology*
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Ligands
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / immunology*
  • Risk Factors


  • Cytokines
  • Ligands