Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

Diabetes Metab J. 2015 Aug;39(4):291-303. doi: 10.4093/dmj.2015.39.4.291.


Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut.

Keywords: Gut permeability; Insulin resistance; Metabolic disorders; Mucosal barrier; Obesity; Probiotics.

Publication types

  • Review