The human skeleton, made of 206 bones, plays vital roles including supporting the body, protecting organs, enabling movement, and storing minerals. Bones are made of organic structures, intimately connected with an inorganic matrix produced by bone cells. Many elements are ubiquitous in our environment, and many impact bone metabolism. Most elements have antagonistic actions depending on concentration. Indeed, some elements are essential, others are deleterious, and many can be both. Several pathways mediate effects of element deficiencies or excesses on bone metabolism. This paper aims to identify all elements that impact bone health and explore the mechanisms by which they act. To date, this is the first time that the effects of thirty minerals on bone metabolism have been summarized.
Keywords: Bone; Bone metabolism; Heavy metals; Mineral deficiency; Minerals; Osteoporosis; Trace elements.
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