Regulation of Instant Blood Mediated Inflammatory Reaction (IBMIR) in Pancreatic Islet Xeno-Transplantation: Points for Therapeutic Interventions

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;865:171-88. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-18603-0_11.


Xeno-transplantation of pancreatic islets represents a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, potent innate immune responses induced shortly after the transplantation of donor islets to the recipient, comprising the Instant Blood Mediated Immune Reaction (IBMIR), exert detrimental actions on islet graft function. The coagulation and complement cascades together with the leukocyte and platelet populations are the major players in IBMIR. This innate immune attack affects dramatically islet integrity and leads to significant loss of function of the xenograft. In the present review, we focus on the mechanisms contributing to IBMIR components and address therapeutic intervention approaches to limit IBMIR by administering inhibitors in circulation, by coating the islet surface with inhibitors or by generating transgenic donor animals; these approaches could result in improved xenograft survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Antigens, CD / genetics
  • Antigens, CD / immunology
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / genetics
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / immunology
  • Blood Platelets / drug effects
  • Blood Platelets / immunology
  • Blood Platelets / pathology
  • Complement Inactivating Agents / pharmacology
  • Complement System Proteins / genetics
  • Complement System Proteins / immunology
  • Dextran Sulfate / pharmacology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / pathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy*
  • Graft Rejection / immunology
  • Graft Rejection / pathology
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Islets of Langerhans Transplantation / immunology
  • Islets of Langerhans Transplantation / methods*
  • Leukocytes / drug effects
  • Leukocytes / immunology
  • Leukocytes / pathology
  • Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology
  • Swine
  • Transgenes*
  • Transplantation, Heterologous


  • Antigens, CD
  • Blood Coagulation Factors
  • Complement Inactivating Agents
  • Peptides, Cyclic
  • compstatin
  • Complement System Proteins
  • Dextran Sulfate