Aims: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D on insulin resistance and glycaemic control in prediabetes.
Methods: A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science and www.clinicaltrials.gov, together with a historical search through the reference lists of relevant articles until end of June 2014. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues in prediabetes and if they reported homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance or 2-h plasma glucose after oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment effect was estimated according to mean difference in the changes from baseline of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c between vitamin D and control groups. Meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed.
Results: A total of 10 randomized controlled trials were included. Vitamin D did not significantly improve homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose: the mean differences were -0.06 (95% CI -0.36 to 0.24) and -0.23 mmol/l (95% CI -0.65 to 0.19), respectively. Subgroup analysis suggested that vitamin D improved homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in a subgroup with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥ 50 nmol/l [mean difference -0.59 (95% CI -1.14 to -0.04); P = 0.03] and improved 2-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose in the subgroup with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/l [mean difference -0.68 mmol/l (95% CI -1.35 to -0.01); P = 0.05]. Vitamin D significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels. The mean differences were -0.10 mmol/l (95% CI -0.18 to -0.03), P = 0.006 and -1 mmol/mol (95% CI -2 to 0), P = 0.008, respectively.
Conclusions: No beneficial effect of vitamin D in improving insulin resistance was identified.
© 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.